Thailand, the only Southeast Asian nation never to have been colonized by European powers, is a constitutional monarchy whose current head of state is HM Bhumibol Adulyadej. A unified Thai kingdom has existed since the mid- 14th century, and Thailand was known as Siam until 1939, when it officially became the Kingdom of Thailand.
Thailand is the 50th largest country in the world; most nearly equal in size to Spain. Located just 15 degrees north of the equator, Thailand has a tropical climate, and temperatures typically range from 19 to 38 degrees C (66-100 F). Thailand’s largest peak, Doi Inthanon, is 2,565 meters (8,415 ft) tall. Thailand covers 510,890 sq km of land and 2,230 sq km of water. The coastline of Thailand is 3,219 km long. Thailand’s longest shared border is with Myanmar (Burma), stretching 1,800 km.
The weather in Thailand is generally hot and humid: typical of its location within the tropics. Generally speaking, Thailand can be divided into three seasons: “hot” season, rainy season and “cool” season, though Thailand’s geography allows visitors to find suitable weather somewhere in the country throughout the year. Population The population of Thailand comprises roughly 65 million citizens, the majority of whom are ethnically Thai, though peoples of Chinese, Indian, Malay, Mon, Khmer, Burmese and Lao origin are also represented to varying degrees. Almost seven million citizens live in the capital city, Bangkok, though this number varies seasonally and is otherwise difficult to accurately count.
Thailand has an approximate geographical area of 514, 000 sq km (200,000 sq miles). This makes Thailand roughly equivalent in size to Spain or Texas. Capital : Bangkok People Roughly 80% of Thailand’s nearly 65 million citizens are ethnically Thai. The remainder consists primarily of peoples of Chinese, Indian, Malay, Mon, Khmer, Burmese and Lao decent. In Bangkok, there is a greater diversity of ethnicities, including a large number of expatriate residents from across the globe. Other geographic distinctions of the population include a Muslim majority in the south near the Malaysian border, and hill tribe ethnic groups, such as the Hmong and Karen, who live in the northern mountains.
More than 92% of the population speaks Thai or one of it’s regional dialects. While the Thai language is the official language of Thailand, as a result of its cosmopolitan capital city and established tourism infrastructure, English is spoken and understood throughout much of the land. Religion 94.6% of Thais are Buddhist, 4.6% of Thais are Muslim, 0.7% of Thais are Christian